“Diplomacy by Deception: Panama: The Naked Truth” by Dr. John Coleman

  • In the period 1845–1849, the government of Colombia concluded a treaty with the United States, granting the U.S. right of transit across the Isthmus of Panama.
  • In 1855 Panama was given federal status by a constitutional amendment Prior to the revolution of 1903, Panama had been part of Colombia.
  • On April 19, 1850, the Clayton-Bulwer treaty between Great Britain and the United States was signed, in which both parties agreed not to obtain or maintain any exclusive control of a proposed canal, and guaranteed its neutrality. At the time Colombian oil was the key issue.
  • On February 5, 1900, the first Hay Pauncefote treaty between Great Britain and the United States was signed. The treaty renounced British rights to a joint construction to build a canal and ownership, and was rejected when it reached the British Parliament
  • The second Hay-Pauncefote treaty was signed in November 1901, giving the United States the sole right of construction, maintenance and control of a canal.
  • On Jan. 23,1903, the Hay-Heran treaty between Colombia and the United States was signed, which provided for the acquisition by the United States of a canal zone. The Colombian Senate did not ratify the treaty.
  • The Hay-Bunua-Varilla treaty between the United States and the new government of Panama was signed on Nov. 18,1903: Panama sold in perpetuity a zone five miles wide on either side of the future canal, with full jurisdiction to the United States.
  • The United States gained the right also to fortify the canal zone, and paid $10 million for the rights and further agreed to pay an annual fee of $250,000.
  • Released from the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty in January of 1903, the United States and Colombia negotiated the Hay-Herran Treaty, which accorded United States sovereignty over the territory five miles wide on either side of the proposed canal.
  • The treaty was signed on Feb. 26,1904. It is of the utmost importance to take cognizance that the land five miles wide on either side of the proposed canal, was henceforth sovereign United States territory, which could not be given away or otherwise disposed of, save and except by a Constitutional amendment ratified by all of the states.
  • Ratification of the treaty was delayed by Colombia and it was not until eleven years later, on April 6,1914, that the Thompson-Urrutia treaty was signed, with the U.S. expressing regret over differences that had arisen with Colombia, and agreeing to pay Colombia the sum of $25 million by which action, Colombia ratified the treaty.
  • On Sept. 2,1914, the boundaries of the Canal Zone were defined and further sovereign rights of protection were conceded to the United States. The Panama Canal Zone then became sovereign territory of the United States.
  • The Thompson-Urrutia Treaty was signed on April 20, 1921. The terms of the treaty were that Colombia recognized the independence of Panama. The previously disputed boundaries were fixed, and diplomatic relations established with the signing of various accords between Panama and Colombia.
  • The U.S. Senate delayed ratification for another seven years, but on April 20, 1928, finally ratified the Thompson-Urrutia Treaty with certain modifications.
  • The Colombian Congress similarly ratified the treaty on Dec. 22,1928.
  • the Coudert Brothers
  • Sol Linowitz
  • the Trilateral Commission
  • William Colby (formerly of the CIA)
  • Kissinger Associates
  • William G. Walker

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General Manuel Noriega — http://Noriega.carrd.co

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General Manuel Noriega

General Manuel Noriega

General Manuel Noriega — http://Noriega.carrd.co

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